Posted by lizmanvell
Critical Essay: Misbehaving children or violent criminals: Can restorative justice thrive with police officers in schools?
Are they compatible? Complimentary? Contradictory?
What effect does a police presence have on school climate?
Should school resource officer programs be defunded and the funds spent on student support services and restorative principles and practices instead?
Posted by lizmanvell
If zero-tolerance is:
- Ineffective (one-size fits all and does not teach better behavior)
- Counterproductive (escalates the school suspension to drop out to prison pipeline)
- Sometimes even foolish (suspending a first grader for hitting another student)
And since misbehavior and conflicts are:
- An inevitable part of everyday life in schools, homes, and communities
- No longer handled with automatic student suspensions and expulsions
What can we do instead?
- Teach positive social behavior at all developmental levels
- Teach basic conflict resolution skills K-12
- Provide students with constructive options to resolve conflicts before they turn into a crisis
- Treat a crisis as an opportunity to learn
There is so much we can do if we intentionally weave these approaches into everyday school life. The school culture would be one of prevention based on care and respect, taking responsibility, learning appropriate behavior, and of intervention based on restoring damaged relationships.
What kind of problem behavior are we talking about?
We are concerned with all types of violence (physical force used to violate, damage, or abuse another, and abusive or unjust use of power)on the continuum from subtle/emotional to obvious/physical.
The Violence Continuum- where conflicts escalate from subtle to obvious:
SUBTLE__name-calling__excluding__teasing__embarrassing__taunting__hitting__stealing__ spreading rumors__ bullying__harassing__stalking__threatening with harm__ganging up on__punching__assaulting sexually__targeting for hate crimes__stabbing__shooting__killing__OBVIOUS
What kind of solutions are there?
Conflict resolution prevention and intervention strategies needed to prevent and address violence also fall on a continuum from pro-action/prevention to intervention/resolution.
The Conflict Resolution Continuum where school-wide practices range from prevention to intervention to crisis management:
PREVENTION__ nurturing a positive school climate of caring, respectful relationships where every student is my student__identifying common values and social norms__providing bullying-prevention training, policies, and procedures__compiling student generated behavior guidelines/rules/codes of conduct__teaching, practicing, modeling, applying principles of restorative justice and positive social and conflict resolution skills__using informal conflict resolution(What are you doing? What can you do instead?)__involving families to work with us as a team__developing individual problem-solving plans__counseling/adult mentoring__providing formal peer and adult mediation__assigning in-school suspension__suspending from school__using formal restorative justice programs__expelling from school____arresting__incarcerating__ CRISIS
When a situation escalates in seriousness, conflict mediation and restorative justice can break the cycle of punishment:
inappropriate behavior+punishment+more inappropriate behavior+harsher punishment=
destroyed relationships + damaged lives
Mediation allows each student in a conflict to peacefully work out a solution they can both live with. The impartial mediator-peer or adult-provides a safe and respectful setting where they can express their concerns and feelings, gain insight into how their behavior affects others, and talk to each other in a respectful way to come up with an agreement. Mediation helps students consider the perspectives of others and can prevent the escalation of a conflict. It helps restore broken relationships and to build new ones. Through the mediation process students learn that conflicts are normal, to take responsibility for their part in the conflict, to work together to solve the problem, and that they can peacefully settle conflicts with positive words and actions.
Restorative justice is an opportunity to change negative behavior by focusing on the harm done to the victim-person or community. Its goal is not to punish but to develop empathy and mend relationships. The offender is expected to make things right and to not repeat the behavior in the future. Rather than receiving external punishment handed out by an adult authority, the offender takes ownership of his actions and is actively involved with repairing the damage done. It is an educational approach that aims to teach responsibility, change attitudes, and replace destructive behavior with constructive choices. Formal restorative justice programs are appropriate for secondary students and we also practice restorative justice with young children when we ask them how they can fix the mess they made, including emotional hurt they may have caused others.
Through mediation and restorative justice processes, students learn how their actions are personal choices and that their choices have consequences on people and communities. They learn the invaluable quality of empathy and compassion and how to restore harmony.
Even with strong prevention efforts conflicts and violence of many forms and intensities will still arise. Mediation and restorative justice are not the answer for all offenses. Serious behavior that threatens someone’s physical safety and emotional well-being is still dealt with consistently, swiftly, and assertively. Yet we can address all those other negative behaviors on the middle and lower ends of the violence continuum in more constructive ways that teach, model, and expect better behavior.
Tags: building trust, changing school culture, empathy, Mediation, positive school climate, Relationships, responsibility, Restorative Justice, safe school climate, school violence, violence continuum, zero-tolerance discipline policies